Some tissue types give rise to human cancers millions of times more often than other tissue types. Although this has been recognized for more than a century, it has never been explained. Here, we show that the lifetime risk of cancers of many different types is strongly correlated (0.81) with the total number of divisions of the normal self-renewing cells maintaining that ... More
The ATR-CHK1-WEE1 kinase cascade's functions in the DNA damage checkpoints are well established. Moreover, its roles in the unperturbed cell cycle are also increasingly being recognized. In this connection, a number of small-molecule inhibitors of ATR, CHK1, and WEE1 are being evaluated in clinical trials. Understanding precisely how cells respond to different concentratio... More
CLASPIN is an essential mediator in the DNA replication checkpoint, responsible for ATR (ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein)-dependent activation of CHK1 (checkpoint kinase 1). Here we found a dynamic signaling pathway that regulates CLASPIN turn over. Under unperturbed conditions, the E3 ubiquitin ligase HERC2 regulates the stability of the deubiquitinating en... More
Okumura E, Morita A, Wakai M, Mochida S, Hara M, Kishimoto T.
Entry into M phase is governed by cyclin B-Cdk1, which undergoes both an initial activation and subsequent autoregulatory activation. A key part of the autoregulatory activation is the cyclin B-Cdk1-dependent inhibition of the protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A)-B55, which antagonizes cyclin B-Cdk1. Greatwall kinase (Gwl) is believed to be essential for the autoregulatory activa... More
Ataxia telangiectasia is caused by mutations in ATM and represents a paradigm for cancer predisposition and neurodegenerative syndromes linked to deficiencies in the DNA-damage response. The role of ATM as a key regulator of signalling following DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) has been dissected in extraordinary detail, but the impact of this process on DSB repair still re... More
Although it has been established that nuclear factor with BRCT domain 1/ mediator of the DNA damage checkpoint protein 1 (NFBD1/MDC1) is closely involved in DNA damage response, its possible contribution to the regulation of cell- cycle progression is unclear. In the present study, we have found for the first time that NFBD1 is phosphorylated by polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) a... More
Mammalian cryptochromes (Crys) are essential circadian clock factors implicated in diverse clock-independent physiological functions, including DNA damage responses. Here we show that Cry1 modulates the ATR-mediated DNA damage checkpoint (DDC) response by interacting with Timeless (Tim) in a time-of-day-dependent manner. The DDC capacity in response to UV irradiation showe... More
Wu Y, Lin JC, Piluso LG, Dhahbi JM, Bobadilla S, Spindler SR, Liu X.
While p53 activation has long been studied, the mechanisms by which its targets genes are restored to their preactivation state are less clear. We report here that TAF1 phosphorylates p53 at Thr55, leading to dissociation of p53 from the p21 promoter and inactivation of transcription late in the DNA damage response. We further show that cellular ATP level might act as a mo... More
Ultraviolet (UV) light is a carcinogenic agent that upregulates the expression of several genes involved in various cellular processes, including cell cycle checkpoints and apoptosis. The universal cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21WAF1/Cip1 plays major roles in these processes, and the level of its corresponding message increases several times in response to UV-induced... More